The Thirty Years War , C.V.Wedgewood. Despite its age (first published in 1938), this is still one of the best english language narratives of this most complex of wars, tracing the intricate dance of diplomacy and combat that involved all of Europe in the fate of Germany.
Lutter am Barenberge in the region of Lower Saxony with its 2,422 habitants is a place located in Germany - some 138 mi or ( 222 km ) West of Berlin , the country's capital .
Local time in Lutter am Barenberge is now 11:52 PM (Thursday) . The local timezone is named " Europe/Berlin " with a UTC offset of 1 hours. Depending on your mobility, these larger cities might be interesting for you: Copenhagen, Malmö, Seesen, Ostlutter, and Neuwallmoden. When in this area, you might want to check out Copenhagen . We discovered some clip posted online . Scroll down to see the most favourite one or select the video collection in the navigation. Are you looking for some initial hints on what might be interesting in Lutter am Barenberge ? We have collected some references on our attractions page.
BLADES OF DEATH / The Art & Science Of Serrada Escrima
5:53 min by Boricua7962
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The art of Serrada Escrima as taught by Grand Master *D* is a no nonsense applied method of close quarter empty hand & close quarter knife combat fighting. Because the tactics of Serrada Escrima have ..
0:16 min by tek604
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Me skipping stones on the Innerstetalsperre ..
Sight seeing flight around the Edersee
3:33 min by CanadianMapleLeaf01
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I've attended a sightseeing flight in Waldeck, Germany on Saturday 19th. In this video you can see: - Township of Korbach - The bridge of Alt-Asel, one of the three sunken villages ( Asel, Berich and ..
Bodensteiner Klippen / Sofaklippe
3:09 min by HannoverOnline
Views: 304 Rating: 5.00
Weiter Bilder unter: www.panoramio.com ..
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Interesting facts about this location
Battle of Lutter
The Battle of Lutter took place during the Thirty Years' War, on 27 August 1626, between the forces of the Protestant Christian IV of Denmark and those of the Catholic League. Lutter am Barenberge lies to the south of the modern town of Salzgitter, then within the Imperial Circle Estate of Lower Saxony, and now in northwest Germany. The battle resulted in a heavy defeat of Christian IV's troops by those of Emperor Ferdinand II, led by the Catholic League general Johan Tzerclaes, Count of Tilly.
Neile is a river of Lower Saxony, Germany.
Free solo climbing
Free solo climbing, also known as free soloing, is a form of free climbing where the climber (the free soloist) forgoes ropes, harnesses and other protective gear while ascending and relies only on his or her physical strength, climbing ability, and psychological fortitude to avoid a fatal fall. Free solo climbing should not be confused with general free climbing, in which gear is typically used for safety in case of a fall, but not to assist the climb.
With a population of about 20,000, Salzgitter-Bad is the second biggest quarter of the German city Salzgitter in Lower Saxony. Salzgitter's name derives from it the quarter is regarded as the historical and cultural centre of Salzgitter.
The Salzgitter Hills (German: Salzgitter-Höhenzug, also Salzgitterscher Höhenzug) is an area of upland up to 322.9 metres in height, in the Lower Saxon Hills between Salzgitter and Goslar in the districts of Wolfenbüttel and Goslar and in the territory of the independent town of Salzgitter. The hills lie in the German federal state of Lower Saxony.
Military conflicts similar to or like Battle of Lutter
The Battle of Lutter (Lutter am Barenberge) took place during the Thirty Years' War, on 27 August 1626 (17 August 1626 in the old Julian calendar), between the forces of the Lower Saxon Circle, combining mostly Protestant states, and led by its Circle Colonel Christian IV of Denmark, and the forces of the Catholic League. Wikipedia
Significant battle of the Thirty Years' War between Danish Protestants and the Imperial German Catholic forces on the Elbe River outside Dessau, Germany on 25 April 1626. Attempt by Ernst von Mansfeld to cross the Dessau-Roßlau road bridge in order to invade the headquarters of the Imperial Army in Magdeburg, Germany. Wikipedia
Fought on 6 August 1623 between the armies of the Electoral Palatinate and of the Catholic League during the Thirty Years' War. The League's forces were led by Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly, the Protestants by Christian of Brunswick. Wikipedia
German Protestant military leader during the early years of the Thirty Years' War, fighting against the forces of the Imperial House of Habsburg, Habsburg Spain, and the Catholic League. Born in 1599 at the Gröningen Priory near Halberstadt , the third son of Duke Henry Julius of Brunswick-Lüneburg (1564–1613) with his second wife Elizabeth (1573–1626), daughter of the late King Frederick II of Denmark. Wikipedia
Siege laid on Stralsund by Albrecht von Wallenstein's Imperial Army during the Thirty Years' War, from May to 4 August 1628. Aided by Denmark and Sweden, with considerable Scottish participation. Wikipedia
Market town located in the Goslar district of Lower Saxony, Germany. Administrative seat of the Samtgemeinde Lutter am Barenberge Wikipedia
Fought on September 3, 1632 between the Catholic forces of Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II and the Protestant forces of King Gustavus II of Sweden during the period of Swedish intervention in the Thirty Years War. The tactical victory by the Catholic forces allowed the Imperial army to quickly advance into Saxony, while the Swedish forces were forced into retreat. Wikipedia
Samtgemeinde in the district of Goslar, in Lower Saxony, Germany. Situated northwest of the Harz, approx. 13 km northwest of Goslar. Wikipedia
Fought in 1634 during the Thirty Years' War, on 27 August (Julian calendar) or 6 September (Gregorian calendar). The Roman Catholic Imperial army, bolstered by 15,000 Spanish soldiers, won a crushing victory over the combined Protestant armies of Sweden and their German-Protestant allies (Heilbronn Alliance). Wikipedia
Treaty providing for the capitulation of the Duchy of Pomerania to the forces of the Holy Roman Empire during the Thirty Years' War. Signed on 10 November or 20 November (N.S.) 1627 by Bogislaw XIV, Duke of Pomerania and Hans Georg von Arnim, commander in chief of an occupation force belonging to the army of Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor, led by Albrecht von Wallenstein. Wikipedia
Fought between a combined Catholic League army led by Johan Tzerclaes, Count of Tilly and Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba and a Protestant army commanded by Christian the Younger, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, close to the town of Höchst, today a suburb of the city of Frankfurt am Main. One-sided Catholic League victory. Wikipedia
Lutheran damsels' convent in Neuenwalde, a locality of Geestland, Lower Saxony, Germany. Owned by the corporation of the Bremian Knighthood and used for Lutheran conventuals and continues to function as such today. Wikipedia
Important battle in the early stages of the Thirty Years' War. Fought on 8 November 1620. Wikipedia
Engagement in the Thirty Years' War, fought on 22 August or 2 September (N.S.) 1628 near Wolgast, Duchy of Pomerania, Germany. Danish forces of Christian IV of Denmark-Norway had made landfall on Usedom and the adjacent mainland, and expelled the imperial occupation forces. Wikipedia
Fought in the Spanish Netherlands between a Spanish army, and the Protestant forces of Ernst von Mansfeld and Christian of Brunswick during the Eighty Years' War and Thirty Years' War. The bloody struggle left the Protestants mangled and the Spanish masters of the field, but unable to block the enemy's march. Wikipedia
Treaty or Peace of Lübeck (Freden i Lübeck, Lübecker Frieden) ended the Danish intervention in the Thirty Years' War (Low Saxon or Emperor's War, Kejserkrigen). Signed in Lübeck on 22 May 1629 by Albrecht von Wallenstein and Christian IV of Denmark, and on 7 June by Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor. Wikipedia
Significant battle of the Thirty Years' War. In the late summer of 1632 the army of Swedish King Gustavus Adolphus met Albrecht von Wallenstein near Nürnberg. Wikipedia
Now Lower Saxony, during the Thirty Years' War. Assault by Imperial forces led by Archduke Leopold Wilhelm of Austria, forcing the Imperials to retreat. Wikipedia
The destruction of the Protestant city of Magdeburg on 20 May 1631 by the Imperial Army and the forces of the Catholic League, resulting in the deaths of around 20,000, including both defenders and non-combatants. Considered the worst massacre of the Thirty Years' War. Wikipedia
Der Oder on 13 April 1631 was a battle of the Thirty Years' War. Fought between the Swedish Empire and the Holy Roman Empire for the strategically important, fortified Oder crossing Frankfurt an der Oder, Brandenburg, Germany. Wikipedia
German military commander who, despite being a Catholic, fought for the Protestants during the early years of the Thirty Years' War. Illegitimate son of Count Peter Ernst von Mansfeld , a member of the comital House of Mansfeld and royal Spanish stadtholder. Wikipedia
The Battle of Humenné (Hungarian: Homonnai csata, Polish: bitwa pod Humiennem or pierwsza odsiecz wiedeńska) took place on 22–23 November 1619 near Humenné (eastern Slovakia) during the first period of the Thirty Years' War between the Transylvanian army and the joined loyalist Hungarian and Polish forces of Lisowczycy. The only battle of that war to involve the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Wikipedia
The Palatinate campaign, or the Spanish conquest of the Palatinate took place from 1620 to 1622, the Palatinate Phase of the Thirty Years' War. Invaded by an Imperial-Spanish army under Don Ambrosio Spinola, Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly and Don Gonzalo de Córdoba. Wikipedia
The Battle of Wittstock took place during the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648). Fought on 24 September or 4 October (Gregorian calendar) 1636. Wikipedia
Fought during the Swedish phase of the Thirty Years' War near the Free city of Strasbourg, in the Holy Roman Empire. Having dealt a heavy defeat on the Swedish army at the Battle of Nördlingen in September, the armies of the Emperor, Spain and the Catholic League overran much of the Swedish-held southern Germany. Wikipedia
Battle during the Thirty Years' War in Kempen, Westphalia on 17 January 1642. Captured. Wikipedia
Battle in the Bohemian Revolt period of the Thirty Years' War on 6 May 1622 near Wimpfen. The combined forces of the Catholic League and the Spanish Empire under Marshal Tilly and Gonzalo de Córdoba defeated the Protestant forces of Georg Friedrich, Margrave of Baden. Wikipedia
The Second Battle of Breitenfeld, also known as the First Battle of Leipzig, took place on 23 October 1642 at Breitenfeld, some 7.5 km north-east of Leipzig, Germany, during the Thirty Years' War. Decisive victory for the Swedish army under the command of Field Marshal Lennart Torstenson over an Imperial Army of the Holy Roman Empire under the command of Archduke Leopold Wilhelm of Austria and his deputy, Prince-General Ottavio Piccolomini, Duke of Amalfi. Wikipedia
Prince of Saxe-Lauenburg and a general during the Thirty Years' War. Son of the Duke Francis II of Saxe-Lauenburg from his second marriage to Maria of Brunswick-Lüneburg. Wikipedia
Christian IV of Denmark had declared war on the Holy Roman Empire in 1625.  He then invaded the empire with an army commanded by Ernst von Mansfeld to oppose the Catholic League's army commanded by Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly. In response, Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor, had Albrecht von Wallenstein raise an additional army to support Tilly.  Wallenstein defeated Mansfeld in the Battle of Dessau Bridge in 1626.  The remnants of Mansfeld's army left Central Germany, and turned to Silesia and Hungary to regroup with Gabriel Bethlen's forces. 
After Tilly had defeated Christian IV in the Battle of Lutter am Barenberge in August 1626, and Bethlen was neutralized in the (third) Peace of Pressburg in December,  Tilly and Wallenstein were able to subsequently expel Christian IV from the North German plain, organized in the Lower Saxon and Upper Saxon imperial circles, and pressure him even in Danish Jutland.  The internally divided Upper Saxon circle, to which the Duchy of Pomerania with Stralsund belonged, was incapable of self-defence and had formally declared neutrality. 
Christian IV's army staff heavily relied on Scottish expertise: with 300 Scottish officers in his service, Scottish officers outnumbered Danish and Norwegian officers combined by 3:1.  Also, Christian IV had issued patents to raise 9,000 Scottish troops in 1627, adding to 2,000-3,000 Scottish troops raised by Donald Mackay for Ernst von Mansfeld's army, but who had been deployed to Denmark instead.
Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden was since 1626 involved in the Polish-Swedish War, with Poland allied to the Holy Roman Empire.  In this war, Scotsman Alexander Leslie started his career in Swedish service as commandant and governor of Pillau in East Prussia.  Gustavus Adolphus had made plans to intervene in the Holy Roman Empire, of which the Riksdag commission approved in the winter of 1627/28. 
Situation in Pomerania Edit
In November 1627, the Duchy of Pomerania had capitulated to the forces of the Holy Roman Empire.  Bogislaw XIV, Duke of Pomerania, on 10 November signed the Capitulation of Franzburg with Hans Georg von Arnim, who on behalf of Albrecht von Wallenstein commanded the imperial occupation forces in Pomerania.  With the occupation, Wallenstein sought to secure the southern coastline of the Baltic Sea for Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor against Christian IV of Denmark. 
The Capitulation of Franzburg required all towns except for ducal residences to take in imperial troops,  and Wallenstein had ordered Arnim to occupy the Pomeranian ports and seize their vessels already in October.  Stralsund however was unwilling to give in,  as its status as a Hanseatic town had provided for considerable self-determination and independence from the Pomeranian dukes.  Thus, Stralsund ignored Bogislaw's order to adhere to the capitulation, issued since February 1628,  and instead turned first to Denmark and then to Sweden for support. 
Starting in May 1628, siege was laid on Stralsund by Albrecht von Wallenstein's troops,  commanded by Hans Georg von Arnim.  By then, the town with its 20,000 inhabitants was defended by a citizen force of 2,500, a levy of 1,500, and another 1,000 enlisted men.  The first major imperial assault on the city took place between 16 and 24 May. 
Christian IV of Denmark had reacted positively to Stralsund's call and deployed a force including 900  of Mackay's Scotsmen, organized in seven companies, and a company of Germans in her defence.  Though dispatched already on 8 May, they only landed on 24 May.  Initially, the Danish-German mercenary Heinrich Holk was appointed governor.   When Holk retired to seek reinforcements, he was succeeded by Scotsman Lieutenant Colonel Alexander Seaton of Mackay's Regiment. 
The Imperial army renewed its assault on 26 and 27 May.  When checked, Arnim resorted to bombardment awaiting Wallenstein's personal appearance. 
On 20 June, a Swedish auxiliary expedition, dispatched already on 2 June, arrived with 600 men commanded by Colonel Fretz, Colonel James MacDougall, and Major Semple. 
On 23  or 25  June, Stralsund concluded an alliance with Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, scheduled to last twenty years.   Gustavus Adolphus then stationed a garrison in the town, the first such on German soil in history.  This event marked the starting point of Swedish engagement in the Thirty Years' War.  Robert Monro recorded that Semple was killed almost upon arrival and Macdougall temporarily captured. However he noted that this Swedish contingent "did come voluntarily come to succour and help our Nation" indicating the sheer number of Scots from both the standing Danish garrison and the Swedish relief force. 
On 27 June, Wallenstein took command of the besieging forces, and renewed the assaults starting the very same night.  The Scottish troops, entrusted with the defence of a crucial section of Stralsund's fortifications, distinguished themselves by an extremely fierce way of fighting.  The main assault was on the eastern district of Franken, commanded by major Robert Monro.  Of 900 Scots, 500 were killed and 300 wounded, including Monro.  Rosladin was able to relieve Monro's force and re-take lost ground.  An overall 2,000 defenders were killed and captured in this assault.  Monro later recalled that "we were not suffered to come off our posts for our ordinary recreation, nor yet to sleepe" - for a period of six weeks. 
The following night, on 28 and 29 June, Wallenstein succeeded in taking the outer works of the fortifications.  Rosladin was wounded and governor Seaton took over his command. 
On 29 June, Bogislaw XIV, Duke of Pomerania sent two of his high-ranking nobles, the count von Putbus and his chancellor von Horn, to persuade Stralsund to adhere to the Capitulation of Franzburg and surrender to Wallenstein.  On 30 June, Rosladin persuaded the city not to enter into negotiations with Wallenstein, who had resorted to bombardment again.  The same day, ten Swedish vessels reinforced Stralsund with 600 troops, while under heavy fire by Wallenstein's forces.  Soon after, Christian ordered another Scottish regiment, that of Alexander Lindsay, 2nd Lord Spynie, to help with the defence of the town.  These troops arrived around 4 July and suffered huge casualties (being reduced from a regiment to four companies) in the ensuing assaults, many led by Wallenstein in person.  On 10 July, Wallenstein and Stralsund negotiated a treaty in the Hainholz woods northwest of the town, [c] requiring Stralsund to take in Pomeranian troops.  The treaty was signed by Wallenstein and Bogislaw XIV on 21 July, but not by Stralsund.  Though Bogislaw vouched for the town, the treaty did not come into effect. 
Already on 2 July, Stralsund had been reinforced by 400 Danish troops, and by 1,100 troops of the Danish-Scottish regiments of Donald Mackay and Alexander Lindsay, 2nd Lord Spynie in the following week.  By the 17 July Scotsman Alexander Leslie, arrived with 1,100 troops, including more Scottish volunteers, and succeeded Seaton as Stralsund's governor.   Leslie commanded a total of 4,000 to 5,000 troops.  The Danish support amounted to 2,650 troops deployed during the siege.  One of Leslie's first actions was an audacious all-out assault on the besieging troops which Robert Monro described as follows:
Sir Alexander Leslie being made governour, he resolved for the credit of his countrymen to make an out-fall upon the Enemy, and desirous to conferre the credit on his own Nation alone, being his first Essay in that Citie 
Heavy rainfall between 21 and 24 July turned the battlefield into a marsh.  On 4 August, Wallenstein lifted the siege,  acknowledging his first misfortune in the Thirty Years' War. 
After the unsuccessful siege, Wallenstein headed to nearby Wolgast, to fight a final battle with Christian IV:  Danish troops had landed in the area and occupied the island of Usedom, and had taken the town of Wolgast on 14 August without fighting.  On 22 August, Wallenstein retook the town. 
Also in August, Swedish chancellor Axel Oxenstierna came to Stralsund, and offered negotiations to Wallenstein.  The latter however refused.  The inability to take Stralsund was to become one of the obstacles which led to Wallenstein's temporary dismissal in 1630. 
When Gustavus Adolphus' invaded Pomerania in June 1630,  he used his bridgehead in Stralsund to clear the flanks of his landing forces.  Bogislaw XIV concluded an alliance with the Swedish king in the Treaty of Stettin in July.  Wallenstein's forces were subsequently driven out of the Duchy of Pomerania, and Swedish forces had taken complete control of the duchy when Wallenstein's forces in Greifswald surrendered in June 1631. 
During the Swedish campaign, Alexander Leslie was succeeded as the governor of Stralsund by another Scot in Swedish service, James MacDougal, in 1630.  From 1679 to 1697, the position was to pass to yet another Scot, Peter Maclean. 
Part of Wallenstein's forces were infected with the Black Death.  During the siege, the epidemics swept into the town, killing 2,000 in the months of August and September alone. 
The battle of Stralsund entered Pomeranian folklore.  The population of Stralsund commemorates the siege of 1628 with an annual festival, "Wallensteintage" ("Wallenstein Days"). 
As early as 1536, a water mill for the beginning of the 16th century is mentioned at the current location. Presumably, however, it was destroyed between 1519 and 1523 during the Hildesheim collegiate feud . In any case, this mill has demonstrably no longer existed since 1548 at the latest.
In 1609 the Pöbbeckenmühle was built at the same location by the then head forester Andreas Koch to supply the people of the house with flour. The approval for this was given a year earlier by Duke Heinrich Julius . During the Battle of Lutter am Barenberge in August 1626, the mill was largely destroyed 17 years after it was built.
In 1696 the location of the mill changed hands, and in 1700 he received permission to rebuild it. In the period that followed, various tenants managed the Pöbbeckenmühle. In 1829 the mill finally passed into the possession of the Gerber family, who operated the mill until after the Second World War. After the end of the First World War, an oil mill was built in addition to the grain mill in 1918. However, their operation lasted only a few years. During this period and in the following years, the owners ran an agricultural business on the same site and a fish farm with two ponds that also belonged to the Pöbbeckenmühle, in addition to the mill, which was driven by artificial ditches from a total of four streams.
A few years after the Second World War, the mill was finally shut down. However, the agricultural operation on the site continues to this day.
Slaget [ redigér | redigér wikikode ]
Begge hærstyrker var opstillede med kavaleri på flanken og infanteri i midten. Inden slaget havde det danske krigsråd bedt kongen om ikke at gennemføre det, men kongen valgte ikke at lytte til denne anmodning.
Om morgenen indtog den danske hær fordelagtige stillinger på et højdedrag, som var vel beskyttet bag en bæk og med besværligt terræn til siderne. Kampen indledtes med en artilleriduel, hvor efter Tilly angreb over bækken. De angribende tropper blev trængt tilbage af danskerne. Der efter fulgte en ukontrolleret dansk forfølgelse af de flygtende tropper, hvilket indebar, at danskerne forlod deres beskyttede stillinger. Tilly formåede at samle sine tropper til et modangreb, hvilket pressede danskerne tilbage til deres oprindelige stillinger. Der fortsatte kampene mellem de danske og kejserlige tropper, og der opstod stor forvirring. De danske stillinger brød fuldstændigt sammen. ΐ] Kong Christian 4. flygtede fra kamppladsen med blot 80 ryttere.
Hvad, der forårsagede det danske nederlag, er svært at vurdere, da den katolske side indledte en intensiv propaganda straks efter slaget. Protestanterne hævdede til deres forsvar, at kavaleriet havde trukket sig tilbage ved et uheldigt pas. Α]
Battle of Lutter am Berenberge
The Battle of Lutter (Lutter am Barenberge) took place during the Thirty Years' War, on 27 August 1626, between the forces of the Protestant Christian IV of Denmark and those of the Catholic League.
Lutter am Barenberge lies to the south of the modern town of Salzgitter, then within the Imperial Circle Estate of Lower Saxony, and now in northwest Germany.
The battle resulted in a heavy defeat of Christian IV's troops by those of Emperor Ferdinand II, led by the Catholic League general Johan Tzerclaes, Count of Tilly.
Christian IV, as a Lutheran, allied with Ernst von Mansfeld in a military campaign he had planned to start in Thuringia in central Germany, and then take to its south. His intention was to bring relief to German Protestants, who had been severely defeated a few weeks earlier in the Battle of Dessau Bridge.
With the participation of Christian IV, the Thirty Years' War, which had hitherto been confined to opposing factions of the Holy Roman Empire, now extended to other European powers, though Christian, as Duke of Holstein, was not a complete foreigner.
Tilly succeeded in drawing Christian's army to Lutter and forcing it into open battle. The imperial infantry broke through the Danish line on three occasions but each time was repulsed by a cavalry counter-attack. However, eventually the Danish army was no longer able to maintain its ground and when its entire artillery fell to the hands of the enemy, panic set in and the Danes retreated towards the town of Stade. The Danish losses were approximately 6,000 dead and 2,500 prisoners.
Following the Battle of Lutter, the princes of north Germany as far as Mecklenburg ceased their support of Christian IV. The victory of Ferdinand II and his allies proved a disastrous start to the Danish campaign in Lower Saxony, which was brought to a close in May 1629 with the Treaty of Lübeck. The battle thus marked the decline of Denmark as a great European power.
For twelve years Christian IV had devoted himself to the labors of peace, when he was a second time compelled to take up arms. The Thirty Years War was then desolating Germany, and the Protestant princes, who were on the point of being crushed by the imperials, appealed in their distress to Christian IV, who was elected director of the "circle" of Lower Saxony and commander-in-chief of the army. His German allies had made brilliant promises to decide him to take their cause in hand, but at the crucial moment they failed to.keep them nor did Holland, France, and England, which had promised him large financial aid, fulfill their obligations. The consequence was that the king, in spite of his courage and strategic ability, conducted a disastrous campaign. The success he had in the beginning came to an end when he fell from his horse from the top of the ramparts of Hameln, an accident that incapacitated him from command for a long time. After a desperate and long-drawn-out struggle which lasted from eight in the morning to five In the afternoon, he was vanquished by the Bavarian general Tilly at the battle of Lutter-am-Barenberge (1626). This defeat placed Denmark at the enemy's mercy, and the following year, under Tilly and Wallenstein, they seized Holstein, Schleswig, and Jutland.
Wallenstein tried after this to make himself master of the Baltic and thus to complete the conquest of Denmark, but Christian IV defeated this plan with the aid of his fleet and prevented all attempts from that quarter. As he could expect no help from his allies, and as the situation of the kingdom was becoming more critical every day, and the rigsraad besides was pressing him by prayers and even threatening remonstrances to make peace, he finally, in 1629, resolved to conclude the Treaty of Liibeck. He promised to interfere no further in the affairs of Germany and gave up the dioceses of Bremen, Verden, and Schwerin, which he had previously acquired for his sons Frederick and Ulrik. The terms were comparatively favorable, but Denmark was left in a melancholy plight, all the resources of the state were dissipated, and half of the kingdom, Holstein, Schleswig, and Jutland, had been two years occupied by an enemy who had ravaged these countries to a frightful extent. A well-organized state, under such a king as Christian IV, would have recovered its forces, but Denmark was dominated by an egotistic and unpatriotic nobility, whose stubborn refusal to stand a share of the public expenditure brought to nothing all the king's attempts to restore the nation. So the situation became worse and worse fourteen years later a still more ruinous war broke out, and still ten years later a third, which brought Denmark to the very brink of destruction. In this state of public distress it became evident that a new spirit was beginning to animate the people and that they were no longer willing to endure patiently the tyranny of the nobles.
Christian IV was constantly increasing the Sound dues, and he believed himself the more justified in doing this, since he fitted out annually and at great expense a considerable fleet for the protection of navigation in the Baltic during the general European war. This increase in the tariff, joined to the king's pretension of being master of that part of the North Sea which lies between Norway and Iceland, aroused much discontent and provoked many protests from all the maritime powers, especially the Dutch and the English. But all complaints remained without result while Denmark was flourishing and in possession of a formidable navy. When, however, the king, pressed for funds after the war with Germany, raised the Sound dues so that a ton of saltpetre, for example, had to pay 14 rix-dollars to the customs, in spite of the protests of the Dutch, that nation entered into a close alliance with Sweden and watched for an opportunity to get away from Denmark those provinces lying to the east of the Sound.
Der Niedersächsische Reichskreis hatte König Christian IV., der als Herzog von Holstein deutscher Reichsfürst war, zum Feldobristen gewählt. Er sollte das Gebiet gegen die Katholische Liga schützen und die Sache der Protestanten unterstützen. Im Kriegsjahr 1626 plante er in Absprache mit seinem Verbündeten Graf Mansfeld einen Feldzug, der sich zunächst gegen Thüringen und dann gegen Süddeutschland richten sollte. Seine Kriegsziele waren die Befreiung des heutigen Niedersachsens von feindlichen Truppen, die Trennung der kaiserlichen Armeen der Feldherren Tilly und Wallenstein sowie die Säuberung und Besetzung von Hessen. Im Sommer 1626 stand der König mit seinem Heer bei Wolfenbüttel. Um den kaiserlichen Feldherrn Tilly zu vertreiben, zog Christian IV. nach Süden und traf am 16. August bei Northeim auf das kaiserliche Heer.
Tilly erkannte die Übermacht der protestantischen Seite und zog sich nach Nörten-Hardenberg zurück, um auf Verstärkung durch den Feldherrn Albrecht von Wallenstein zu warten. Der war aus der Gegend von Blankenburg im Anmarsch. Christian IV. wollte zunächst Wallensteins Heer vernichten, was aber misslang, da er sich beim Anmarschweg verschätzt hatte. Der Dänenkönig wollte dem Gefecht durch Rückzug zur befestigten Stadt Wolfenbüttel entgehen. Bei der Absetzbewegung wurde Christians Heer heftig angegriffen. Am 25. August 1626 kam es bei der Stauffenburg zu einem Gefecht zwischen Tillys Vorhut und Christians Nachhut. Dabei verloren die Dänen 600 Mann und zwei Geschütze. Schließlich mussten sich die verfolgten Dänen zur offenen Feldschlacht im freien Gelände bei Lutter am Barenberge stellen.
Die Schlacht fand am 27. August 1626 in der Ebene des Lutterer Beckens, eines flachen Geländes südwestlich von Lutter am Barenberge, statt. In älteren Überlieferungen wird das Datum des 17. August genannt, was auf den alten, Julianischen Kalender zurückzuführen ist. Der Kampf begann morgens um 10 Uhr durch einen Angriff von drei schweren Kavallerieregimentern der Kaiserlichen unter Oberst Nikolaus Dufour.  Um 11 Uhr eröffnete die kaiserliche Batterie das Feuer und ein weiteres Kavallerieregiment griff die dänische Batterie an. Dem Angriff folgte die Infanterie. Die dänische Batterie und die dänische Reiterei unter dem Befehlshaber der Vorhut von General Hans Philipp Fuchs von Bimbach und dem Oberisten Markwart von Pentz schlugen den Angriff zurück.
Daraufhin starteten die Dänen ihren Gegenangriff zur kaiserlichen Batterie, der durchschlagenden Erfolg hatte. Tilly persönlich hielt seine fliehenden Söldner auf und führte sie nach dem Sammeln wieder an. Er erkannte die Gefahr des Durchbrechens und führte frühzeitig Reserven heran. Als die kaiserliche Reiterei eingriff und im Reitergefecht die dänischen Generäle Graf Solms und Prinz Philipp von Hessen-Kassel fielen, kam es zur Flucht der Dänen. Damit erlitten die Dänen bereits in der ersten Phase der Schlacht eine Niederlage auf ihrem rechten Flügel.
Die 2. Phase spielte sich auf dem linken Flügel der Dänen ab. Hier zog der dänische Oberbefehlshaber König Christian IV. Truppen ab, da er Nachricht vom rückwärtigen Herannahen der Truppen Wallensteins erhalten hatte. In diesem Moment griffen zwei kaiserliche Regimenter an, was die dritte Phase der Schlacht einleitete. Die angeschlagenen Dänen konnten dem Angriff nicht widerstehen und das Heer löste sich in Panik auf. Ein Teil der Infanterie floh in die Burg Lutter im nahen Lutter am Barenberge und richtete sich auf Verteidigung ein. Die Kaiserlichen schlossen den Ort ein und beschossen ihn. Die 2.000 eingeschlossenen Dänen kapitulierten und kamen in Gefangenschaft. Nach gewonnener Schlacht machten Tillys Söldner, vor allem Kroatische Reiter, Jagd auf verwundete und geflüchtete Dänen. Bis in die Nacht dauerte die Verfolgung an, bei der gemäß Tillys Befehl ohne Pardon getötet wurde. Auch die Trosse der Dänen wurden verfolgt und geplündert. Auf dem Schlachtfeld wurden 20 Kanonen erbeutet.
In der letzten Phase der Schlacht hatte der Dänenkönig 300 adlige Reiter um sich gesammelt. Mit einem Haufen Reiterei von etwa 50 Männern gelang ihm die Flucht. Er kehrte an seinen Hof in Stade zurück, wo er etwa einen Monat später ankam.
Nach zeitgenössischer Darstellung hatten die Dänen etwa 4.000 Todesopfer, hauptsächlich Infanteristen, hinnehmen müssen, zudem gerieten 2.500 von ihnen in Gefangenschaft. Zu den Verlusten auf kaiserlicher Seite gehen die Angaben stark auseinander und differieren zwischen 200 und 4.000 Gefallenen. An dänischen Obristen fielen:
Die Schlacht bei Lutter war Tillys 18. Sieg, den er laut einem Brief an Kaiser Ferdinand II. für wichtiger erachtete als den bei der Schlacht am Weißen Berg bei Prag. Tilly erhielt für den Sieg Dankes- und Lobschreiben, darunter ein Schreiben von Papst Urban: 
„Heil und apostolischen Segen dir. Wer auf diese Weise den Krieg geschickt zu führen weiß, gelangt zu solchen Siegen, wie du sie über die Treulosigkeit der Ketzer gewöhnlich erringest. Auf denn gelieber Sohn, zur Vertilgung der Ketzer. “
Nach der Schlacht bei Lutter gaben bis auf die Herzöge von Mecklenburg sämtliche norddeutsche Fürsten ihre Unterstützung für Christian IV. auf. Die Schlacht leitete bereits früh das allmähliche Ende des Dänisch-Niedersächsischen Kriegs ein. Dieser Teilkrieg des Dreißigjährigen Krieges endete 1629 mit dem Lübecker Frieden.
Am früheren Gelände der Schlacht südwestlich von Lutter finden sich heute an einem Parkplatz an der B 248 zwei Gedenksteine. Sie erinnern an den auf dänischer Seite kommandierenden Obristen Hans Philipp Fuchs von Bimbach, einen fränkischen Reichsritter, der im dortigen Bereich vom Pferd geschossen wurde. Er wurde, seinem Wunsch entsprechend, in der Nähe des Schlachtfeldes begraben. Seine Nachfahren ließen sein Grab bis Ende des 18. Jahrhunderts pflegen. Beim Chausseebau der heutigen B 248 im 19. Jahrhundert wurde sein Grab geöffnet und neben seinem Skelett ein Schwert gefunden.
Der Sage nach sei bei der Schlacht so viel Blut geflossen, dass sich der Ackerboden im Lutterer Becken zu einem roten Blutacker gefärbt habe. Tatsächlich ist die rötliche Bodenfärbung auf den Eisenanteil im Buntsandstein zurückzuführen, der hier am Nordrand des Harzes als Löss vor rund 50.000 Jahren angeweht wurde.
2011 entstand ein Projekt zur Prospektion des Schlachtfeldes mit Metallsuchgeräten. Daran waren das Regionalteam Braunschweig des Niedersächsischen Landesamtes für Denkmalpflege und Angehörige der Interessensgemeinschaft Ostfalensucher als Gruppe archäologisch interessierter Sondengänger beteiligt. Die Gruppe hatte bereits Prospektionen auf ähnlichen Schlachtfeldern, wie der Fundregion Kalkriese, der Schlacht bei Wittstock und am Harzhorn, durchgeführt. Im Lutterer Becken wurde eine Fläche von 8 km² untersucht. Neben Funden aus dem Neolithikum, der Eisenzeit, der Völkerwanderungszeit und dem Mittelalter sowie einem Hortfund mit drei Silbermünzen aus der Zeit vom späten 16. bis zum frühen 17. Jahrhundert und Kleidungs- und Ausrüstungenteilen zeigte sich im Boden ein Schleier von Musketenkugeln. Die Arbeiten wurden 2017 vorübergehend abgeschlossen. Bei der Auswertung wurde zwischen abgeschossenen (verformten) und nicht abgeschossenen Bleikugeln unterschieden. Sie ergab eine starke Fundkonzentrationen abgeschossener Kugeln am Pöbbeckenberg und eine kleinere im Nordwesten vor Nauen, die auf Schwerpunkte der Schlacht deutet. Nicht abgeschossene Kugeln waren gehäuft östlich der B 248 in Richtung Lutter zu finden. 
Battle of Lutter (am Barenberge), 27 August 1626 - History
Archäologische Untersuchungen auf dem Schlachtfeld einer der bekanntesten Schlachten des Dreißigj. more Archäologische Untersuchungen auf dem Schlachtfeld einer der bekanntesten Schlachten des Dreißigjährigen Krieges in Norddeutschland. Der genaue Schauplatz des historischen Ereignisses wurde im Laufe der Zeit vergessen. Das laufende Projekt "Lutter" der Bezirksarchäologie Braunschweig hat zum Ziel, der schriftlichen Überlieferung archäologische Fakten an die Seite zu stellen. Seit 2011 wurden ausgedehnte Flächen mit Metallsuchgeräten auf Relikte der Kämpfe von 1626 hin untersucht. Mitglieder der IG Ostfalensucher bargen und dokumentierten bislang 561 Metallobjekte, darunter 451 Bleigeschosse für Handfeuerwaffen. Über Fundstellenkartierungen konnte die wahrscheinliche Lage des Kernschlachtfelds ebenso ermittelt werden, wie Zonen weiterer Gefechte und Rückzugsbewegungen des geschlagenen protestantischen Heeres.
Abstract One of the best known battles of the Thirty-Year War in Northern Germany took place in Lutter near Barenberge on 27th August 1626. Nevertheless, the exact location of the historical events was forgotten over the course of time. The ongoing project, "Lutter", carried out by the regional archaeological unit Braunschweig aims to provide archaological evidence to back up the written sources. Since 2011 metal detectorists have investigated extensive areas in search of artefacts relating to the fighting in 1626. Members of the IG Ostfalensucher have so far retrieved and documented 561 metal objects, including 451 lead bullets for small firearms. The likely location of the main battle area could also be shown through the mapping of finds, as could locations of further skirmishes and the defeated Protestant army's line of retreat.
Recherches archéologiques sur le champ de bataille du guerre de trente ans (1618-1648) de "Lutter am Barenberge", 1626. Les résultats fournissent de nouveaux aperçus des combats.
Siege [ edit | edit source ]
Starting in May 1628, siege was laid on Stralsund by Albrecht von Wallenstein's troops, ⎜] commanded by Hans Georg von Arnim. ⎝] By then, the town with its 20,000 inhabitants was defended by a citizen force of 2,500, a levy of 1,500, and another 1,000 enlisted men. ⎝] The first major imperial assault on the city took place between 16 and 24 May. ⎝]
Christian IV of Denmark had reacted positively to Stralsund's call and deployed a force including 900 ⎞] of Mackay's Scotsmen, organized in seven companies, and a company of Germans in her defense. ⎝] Though dispatched already on 8 May, they only landed on 24 May. ⎝] Initially, the Danish-German mercenary Heinrich Holk was appointed governor. ⎟] ⎠] When Holk retired to seek reinforcements, he was succeeded by Scotsman Alexander Seaton. ⎡] ⎢] The imperial army renewed its assault on 26 and 27 May. ⎝] When checked, Arnim resorted to bombardment awaiting Wallenstein's personal appearance. ⎝]
On 20 June, a Swedish auxiliary expedition, dispatched already on 2 June, arrived with 600 men from Norrland, commanded by colonel Rosladin. ⎝]
On 23 ⎣] or 25 ⎜] June, Stralsund concluded an alliance with Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, scheduled to last twenty years. ⎜] ⎣] Gustavus Adolphus then stationed a garrison in the town, the first such on German soil in history. Α] This event marked the starting point of Swedish engagement in the Thirty Years' War. Ώ] On 27 June, Wallenstein took command of the besieging forces, and renewed the assaults starting the very same night. ⎝] The Scottish troops, entrusted with the defense of a crucial section of Stralsund's fortifications, distinguished themselves by an extremely fierce way of fighting. ⎞] The main assault was on the eastern district of Franken, commanded by major Robert Monro. ⎤] Of 900 Scots, 500 were killed and 300 wounded, including Monro. ⎞] Rosladin was able to relieve Monro's force and re-take lost ground. ⎝] An overall 2,000 defendants were killed and captured in this assault. ⎝] Monro later recalled that "we were not suffered to come off our posts for our ordinary recreation, nor yet to sleepe" - for a period of six weeks. ⎞]
The siege, contemporary engraving.
The following night, on 28 and 29 June, Wallenstein succeeded in taking the outer works of the fortifications. ⎝] Rosladin was wounded and governor Seaton took over his command. ⎝] On 29 June, Bogislaw XIV, Duke of Pomerania sent two of his high-ranking nobles, the count von Putbus and his chancellor von Horn, to persuade Stralsund to adhere to the Capitulation of Franzburg and surrender to Wallenstein. ⎜] On 30 June, Rosladin persuaded the city not to enter into negotiations with Wallenstein, who had resorted to bombardment again. ⎝] The same day, ten Swedish vessels re-inforced Stralsund with 600 troops, while under heavy fire by Wallenstein's forces. ⎜] Soon after, Christian ordered another Scottish regiment, that of Alexander Lindsay, 2nd Lord Spynie, to help with the defence of the town. ⎥] These troops arrived around 4 July and suffered huge casualties (being reduced from a regiment to four companies) in the ensuing assaults, many led by Wallenstein in person. Ώ] On 10 July, Wallenstein and Stralsund negotiated a treaty in the Hainholz woods northwest of the town, [nb 1] requiring Stralsund to take in Pomeranian troops. ⎜] The treaty was signed by Wallenstein and Bogislaw XIV on 21 July, but not by Stralsund. ⎜] Though Bogislaw vouched for the town, the treaty did not come into effect. ⎜]
Already on 2 July, Stralsund had been reinforced by 400 Danish troops, and by 1,100 troops of the Danish-Scottish regiments of Donald Mackay and Alexander Lindsay, Lord Spynie in the following week. ⎦] Another week later, Scotsman Alexander Leslie, serving Sweden, arrived with 800 Norrlanders ⎝] and succeeded Seaton as Stralsund's governor. ⎟] ⎢] Leslie commanded a total of 4,000 to 5,000 troops. ⎧] The Danish support amounted to 2,650 troops deployed during the siege. ⎣]
Heavy rainfall between 21 and 24 July turned the battlefield into a marsh. ⎝] On 4 August, Wallenstein lifted the siege, ⎜] acknowledging his first misfortune in the Thirty Years' War. Ώ]
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