John Hays

John Hays

John Coffee Hays was born at Wilson County, Tennessee, on 28th January, 1817. He moved to Texas where he worked as a surveyor. He also joined the Texas Rangers and fought in the Indian Wars.

In 1840 Hays was promoted to the rank of captain. He arranged for his men to be given colt revolvers. The Comancheswere used to fighting against men armed with single-shot guns and suffered heavy casualties at Plum Creek (1840), Enchanted Rock (1841) and at Bandera Pass (1842).

A fellow ranger, Nelson Lee, described Hays as "a slim, slight, smooth-faced boy, not over twenty years of age, and looking younger than he was in fact. In his manners he was unassuming in the extreme, a stripling of few words, whose quiet demeanor stretched quite to the verge of modesty. Nevertheless, it was this youngster whom the tall, huge-framed brawny-armed campaigners hailed unanimously as their chief and leader."

Hays was colonel in the 1st regiment, Texas Mounted Volunteers, during the Mexican War and took part in the battles at Monterrey and Mexico City.

In April 1849, Hays became Indian Agent for the Gila Apaches. He admitted finding it difficult to deal with people who had been responsible for killing his friends and resigned and on 3rd January, 1850.

Hays went to California during the Gold Rush and eventually was elected sheriff of San Francisco County and remained in office until 1853 when he was appointed surveyor-general of California. In this post he played an important role in the development of the city of Oakland.

In 1860 the Indian Wars broke out in Nevada. Hays was appointed commander of 549 volunteers and led his men to a successful victory at Truckee River.

After returning to Oakland he established a real estate business and over the next few years he became very wealthy. John Coffee Hays died in Alameda County, California, on 25th April, 1883.

At the time of my arrival in Texas, the country was in an unsettled state. For a long period of time a system of border warfare had existed between the citizens of Texas and Mexico, growing out of the declaration of independence on the part of the young republic. Marauding parties from beyond the Rio Grande kept the settlers of western Texas in a state of constant agitation and excitement. Besides these annoyances, the inhabitants of other sections were perpetually on the alert to defend themselves against those savage tribes which roamed over the vast region to the north, and which, not infrequently, stole down among the settlers, carrying away their property and putting them to death.

This condition of affairs necessarily resulted in bringing into existence the Texas Rangers, a military order as peculiar as it has become famous. The extensive frontier exposed to hostile inroads, together with the extremely sparse population of the country, rendered any other force of comparatively small avail. The qualifications necessary in a genuine Ranger were not, in many respects, such as are required in the ordinary soldier. Discipline, in the common acceptation of the term, was not regarded as absolutely essential. A fleet horse, an eye that could detect the trail, a power of endurance that defied fatigue, and the faculty of "looking through the double sights of his rifle with a steady arm," - these distinguished the Ranger, rather than any special knowledge of tactics. He was subjected to no "regulation uniform," though his usual habiliments were buckskin moccasins and overhauls, a roundabout and red shirt, a-cap manufactured by his own hands from the skin of the coon or wildcat, two or three revolvers and a bowie knife in his belt, and a short rifle on his arm. In this guise, and well mounted, should he measure eighty miles between the rising and setting sun, and then, gathering his blanket around him, lie down to rest upon the prairie grass with his saddle for a pillow, it would not, at all, occur to him he had performed an extraordinary day's labour.

There are few readers in this country, I venture to conjecture, whose ears have not become familiar with the name of Jack Hays. It is inseparably connected with the struggle of Texas for independence, and will live in the remembrance of mankind so long as the history of that struggle shall survive. In the imagination of most persons he undoubtedly figures as a rough, bold giant, bewhiskered like a brigand, and wielding the strength of Hercules. On the contrary, at the period of which I write, he was a slim, slight, smooth-faced boy, not over twenty years of age, and looking younger than he was in fact. Nevertheless, it was this youngster whom the tall, huge-framed brawny-armed campaigners hailed unanimously as their chief and leader when they had assembled together in their uncouth garb on the grand plaza of Bexar. It was a compliment as well deserved as it was unselfishly bestowed, for young as he was, he had already exhibited abundant evidence that, though a lamb in peace, he was a lion in war; and few, indeed, were the settlers, from the coast to the mountains of the north, or from the Sabine to the Rio Grande, who had not listened in wonder to his daring, and gloried in his exploits.

John Hays - History

Pages 150-151, transcribed by Carolyn Ward from History of Allen and Woodson Counties, Kansas: embellished with portraits of well known people of these counties, with biographies of our representative citizens, cuts of public buildings and a map of each county / Edited and Compiled by L. Wallace Duncan and Chas. F. Scott. Iola Registers, Printers and Binders, Iola, Kan.: 1901 894 p., [36] leaves of plates: ill., ports. includes index.


JOHN B. HAYS, of Carlyle township, came into Allen County as a youth in the spring of 1861 from Madison County, Illinois. Be[sic] was born in St. Clair County, Illinois, April 4, 1849, and was a son of Thomas Jeff-


erson Hays, a native Kentuckian, born about 1814. The latter died in 1854. Zachariah Hays, our subject's grandfather, was born in Scotland and upon migrating to the United States, settled in Kentucky. He was one of the pioneers there and also to Illinois, in which State he died. He was a soldier of the war of the American Revolution, was a farmer in civil life and reared a family of seven sons, Norris, Zachariah, Elias, John, Thos. J., "Jack" and Andrew all of whom reared families in Kentucky and Illinois.

Thos. J. Hays married Susan Ann Cox, our subject's mother. She was a daughter of John B. Cox, a Scotchman, who was the father of six children and died in Madison County, Illinois. The children were: Emanuel, Wesley, Susan, Ann, Phena, Nancy and Mary, all of whom had families. Susan Ann Hays was the mother of three children, viz: William A., of Miami County, Kansas John B. and James, deceased. Thos. Hays, a half brother of our subject, resides in Jasper County, Missouri.

John B. Hays really began life when he enlisted in the army. In the spring of 1862 he enlisted at Iola in Company E, 9th cavalry, and mustered in at Leavenworth. He was with the supply-train escort from Ft. Scott south into Arkansas and the regiment was placed along the Missouri and Kansas and Territory lines to watch the frontier. They had some experience with the guerrilla, Quantrel, in this service. They got him into a house, burned the house down over him and yet he and a companion, got away, wounding a Federal major as they went. The third and last year of his service Mr. Hays spent in Arkansas and the Territory and was mustered out at Duvalls Bluff the "baby of the company." When mustered out he weighed, with all accoutrements, two pistols and one hundred cartridges, just one hundred pounds. He saw much hard and exhausting service and suffered from sickness and general physical debility, yet he forced himself on and came out of it all and was discharged with his regiment more of a wreck than a man.

Since the war our subject has devoted himself to the farm. He has resided in Missouri, and in Miami and Allen counties, Kansas has worked by the month and has farmed on his own account but not until 1889 did he settle down near Carlyle upon his own farm. He was never married and, until his sight failed him, he took a warm personal interest in local public affairs. He is one of the well known Republicans of Carlyle and is descended from a long line of Whigs, Free Soilers and Republicans. His first presidential vote was cast for Grant in 1868 and his last one for McKinley.

Pages 150-151, transcribed by Carolyn Ward from History of Allen and Woodson Counties, Kansas: embellished with portraits of well known people of these counties, with biographies of our representative citizens, cuts of public buildings and a map of each county / Edited and Compiled by L. Wallace Duncan and Chas. F. Scott. Iola Registers, Printers and Binders, Iola, Kan.: 1901 894 p., [36] leaves of plates: ill., ports. includes index.

The House of Yester

The great border branch of Yester is a cadet of the House of Erroll, but there is some doubt as to the exact relationship. Certainly, there seems to be little to support the notion that they are descended from Robert de la Haye, younger brother of the first Chief, although the connection was recalled in the remainder to the earldom of Erroll on its creation in 1452, and at the time when the earldom was re-granted in favour of the 11th Earl in 1666.

The first reliably recorded Chieftain of this branch is John de la Haye, who married the daughter and heiress of Robert de Lyne. With her he acquired the lands and barony of Locherworth, from which the family took its territorial designation in its early generations. His son, Sir William, swore fealty to Edward I of England after the Battle of Dunbar, where he was taken prisoner. The next two generations saw further property acquired with the marriages of Sir Gilbert, third of Locherworth, to the heiress of the patriot Simon Fraser of Oliver, and of Thomas, fourth of Locherworth, to the heiress of Sir William de Coningsburgh, which brought to the family the lands of Tullybothwell in Clackmannan.

From this couple descend the great northern branch of Hay of Lochloy. The effigy of Sir William Hay of Lochloy (d. 1421) can still be seen in full armour in Elgin Cathedral. Cadets of the Hays of Lochloy include the branches of Woodcockdale, Carriber and Bridgehouse, and the descendants of these families survive in many distinguished American Hays today.

The marriage of Sir Thomas, sixth of Locherworth (d. 1397) with the heiress of Hugh Gifford of Yester brought that property into the family. This much grander estate became their principal seat and from this time they became known as Hay of Yester. The next generation saw a union between the two principal branches of the clan with the marriage of Sir William Hay of Locherworth and Yester (d. 1421) with a daughter of Sir Thomas Hay of Erroll. Their third son was the celebrated Sir Edmund Hay of Talla, founder of a dynasty of Hays that stretches from Banffshire in the north to Berwickshire in the south.

John Hay, fifth of Yester was created Lord Hay of Yester in 1487/88. His son, the second Lord Hay, was killed at Flodden in 1513. From his younger son descend the Hays of Haystoun in Peebles, a branch which continued into modern times until the death of Sir Bache Hay of Haystoun, 11th baronet, in 1966.

Like their distant cousins of Erroll, the Hays of Yester were supporters of Mary, Queen of Scots. The fourth Lord was taken prisoner at the Battle of Pinkie in 1547 after which he was confined in the Tower of London. The fifth Lord was one of the leaders of the Marian faction. He changed his allegiance in 1571 but was implicated in the Raid of Ruthven in 1582 when the King was kidnapped and this compromised his future career.

The eighth Lord was created first Earl of Tweeddale in 1646, in recognition of his loyalty to Charles I during the Civil War. From his second son, William Hay of Drumelzier, descend the Hays of Duns, now represented by Alexander Hay of Duns, and the Hays of Nunraw, whose descendants married into the Frescobaldi family in Italy and still continue in an Italian branch of the family.

The second Earl of Tweeddale was a prominent political figure in the troubled years of the second half of the 17th century, serving both king and Commonwealth during the 1640s and ‘50s. He led the Squadrone Volante, one of the leading political groups in the old Scottish parliament. His career fell victim to the Duke of Lauderdale’s enmity, although he was restored to favour after Lauderdale’s downfall in 1680. A further change of heart led him to support the accession of William of Orange, by whom he was appointed Lord Chancellor of Scotland in 1692 and created 1st Marquis of Tweeddale in 1694. From his second son, Lord David Hay, descend the Hays of Belton who survived in the male line until the death of Major James Hay of Belton in 1954.

The second marquis was as prominent in public life as his father, becoming Lord Chancellor in 1704 and Lord High Commissioner to the Scottish Parliament in 1706. He was an enthusiastic supporter of union with England in 1707, having been well paid for his vote in its favour. From his third son the Hays of Newton, the Hays of Newhall and the Hay Mackenzies of Cromartie are descended, now represented by the Earl of Cromartie (Mackenzie.)

The fourth marquis was the last person to hold the office of Secretary of State for Scotland in the 1740s, but was compromised by his mishandling of the rebellion of 1745. He later became Lord Justice General in 1761. The seventh marquis had the misfortune to find himself in France at the outbreak of hostilities with Napoleon, by whom he was imprisoned in the fortress of Verdun where both he and his wife died in 1804. His second son, Lord James Hay, married the heiress of Forbes of Seaton and became the ancestor of the Hays of Seaton, now represented by Malcolm Hay, 5th of Seaton, the present Clan Hay Commissioner.

The eighth marquis (d. 1876, aged 89) was a distinguished soldier of the Peninsular War where he served as ADC to the Duke of Wellington and ended his life as a Field Marshal, Lord Lieutenant of Haddington, a Knight of the Thistle, Knight Grand Cross of the Bath and honorary Colonel of the Life Guards.

Yester House, the magnificent Palladian mansion at Gifford in East Lothian, passed from the family after the death of the 11th marquis in 1967. The late 12th marquis served in the Merchant Marine during the Second World War when he won the George Cross, the highest British decoration for civilian bravery. His second son, Charles David Montagu Hay, is the present 14th Marquis of Tweeddale and Chieftain of Hay of Yester.

Although praised by critics, Hay and Nicolay’s biographical effort was not a commercial success: only 7,000 copies were sold. Its size and cost were probably the determining factors that kept the ten-volume epic from becoming a best seller. In 1902, Nicolay wrote an abridged one-volume version which sold extremely well, indicating that popular interest was not lacking. Still, the original ten-volume set became an instant classic, hailed by many at the time as one of the best books of the 19th century, and subsequently reprinted in several new editions. It remains today the seminal Lincoln biography, required reading for both scholars and enthusiasts alike.

One example of the significance of Hay and Nicolay’s effort is that a review of their work, penned by former Missouri Senator Carl Schurz, was in itself sufficiently acclaimed to be reissued independently as a freestanding volume. Employing the simple title Abraham Lincoln , Schurz’ eloquent evocation of Lincoln was reprinted in at least ten different editions between 1890 and 1920.

Another example of the profound influence of Hay and Nicolay’s Abraham Lincoln: A History is the case of Theodore Roosevelt. Roosevelt was a long-time admirer of Lincoln, and as a child had watched Lincoln’s funeral procession pass by his house in New York. Roosevelt’s admiration for Lincoln was only reinforced when he later came to know John Hay. The two met and talked about Lincoln often, and Hay gave Roosevelt a ring containing a lock of Lincoln’s hair, knowing that Roosevelt would treasure it as he did. Roosevelt saw himself as following in Lincoln’s footsteps and, as President, frequently invoked Lincoln to explain and defend his progressive program. In Abraham Lincoln: A History, Roosevelt found the ammunition to promote his policy objectives.

Later biographers of Lincoln &mdash including even Ida Tarbell, well known for her assiduous research as a muck-raking journalist &mdash have struggled to find gaps left by Hay and Nicolay that are large enough to allow for a meaningful contribution to Lincoln's biography. The collaborative homage to the late President by his two secretaries, truly a labor of intense love and deep respect, remains to this day the singlemost definitive work on Lincoln's life and legacy.

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John Hay

Reprint: “The Human Body as a Microcosmic source of Macrocosmic Values in Calligraphy,” in Kassulia, Ames and Dissanayake, eds., Self as Body in Asian Theory and Practice, Albany, State University of New York Press (1993):179-212 (originally published in Bush and Murck, eds., Theories of the Arts in China, 1983)

“Subject, Nature and Representation in Early Seventeenth Century China,” in Proceedings of the Tung Ch'i-ch'ang International Symposium, Kansas City, Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art (1992):(4)2-21

Catalogue entries for The Century of Tung Ch'i-ch'ang, 1555-1636 (Kansas City, Nelson-Atkins Museum, (1992) nos. 12, 17, 21, 23, 27, 31, 35, 43, 44, 47, 54, 56, 59, 60, 61, 68

“Poetic Space: Ch‘ien Hsuan and the Association of Poetry and Painting,” Words and Images, New York Metropolitan Museum (1991):173-198

“Chao Meng-fu: tradition and self in early Yuan dynasty,” Transitions in Asian Art, Tokyo National Research Institute of Cultural Properties, Tokyo, Japan (1990):65-84

John Coffee "Jack" Hays 1817 - 1883

Jack Hays was born 28 January 1817 at Cedar Lick in Wilson County, Tennessee. By the age of fifteen he had moved to Mississippi and began to learn surveying. By mid-1836 Hays was in Texas where he joined a Ranger company under Erastus "Deaf" Smith. He took part in a skirmish with the Mexican Cavalry and assisted in the capture of Juan Sánchez. He was appointed deputy surveyor of the Bexar District. Hays combined his knowledge of Indian warfare with his rangering.

In 1840, Hays was appointed a captain of the Rangers. He proved himself to be a fearless fighter and a good leader of men. His Ranger companies, often mixed groups of Anglos, Hispanics and Indians, engaged in battles and skirmishes with both the Comanches and other Indian tribes, as well as Mexican troops, throughout the early years of the 1840s. Hays and his Rangers were involved in important actions at Plum Creek, Cañon de Ugalde, Bandera Pass, Painted Rock, Salado, and Walker's Creek. The battle at Walker's Creek marked a turning point in Indian warfare with the first effective use of repeating firearms in close combat with the Comanche. Hays gained further respect as a fighter during the Mexican War. The First Regiment, Texas Mounted Riflemen, under the command of Colonel Jack Hays, served with the army of Zachary Taylor. Hays' men scouted for the army and took part in the Battle of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico in 1846.

The next year, another regiment under Hays helped to keep the communication and supply lines open between Veracruz and Mexico City for the troops under Winfield Scott. After the Mexican War, Hays left Texas, following the gold rush to California in 1849. He was elected as Sheriff of San Francisco in 1850. In 1853 he was appointed U. S. Surveyor General for California. He was one of the developers of Oakland, and held interests in land, banking and utilities. In 1876, Hays was a delegate to the Democratic national convention.

Hays died 21 April 1883 and was interred in the Mountain View Cemetery in Oakland, California.


The office of sheriff in Texas was created by the 1836 Texas Constitution. There are 254 counties in Texas and each county has a sheriff. In 1836, the adaptation of a constitution for the newly created Republic of Texas formally required these positions and read in part:

There shall be appointed for each county, a convenient number of Justices of the Peace, one sheriff, and one coroner, who shall hold their offices for two years, to be elected by qualified voters of the district or county, as Congress may direct. Justices of the Peace and sheriffs shall be commissioned by the President [of the Republic].

By statutes, the sheriff is a Texas Peace Officer, a conservator of the peace, enforces the criminal laws of the state, and is responsible for the county jail, bail bonds, civil process, and security of the courts. In some small counties the sheriff is also the tax collector. The office of sheriff is one of the oldest offices known to our system of jurisprudence. Sheriffs were initially elected to two-year terms, and as of 1956, began serving four-year terms. The size of Texas sheriff’s offices is as diverse as the population of their counties.

Hays County was created on March 1, 1848 from the southern part of Travis County. It is named for legendary Texas Ranger Captain John “Jack” Coffee Hays. Captain Hays was known for his battles with the Mexican Army and his victories over the Comanche Indians, who called him “Bravo Too Much.” Hays County was organized on August 7, 1848, with San Marcos as the county seat. The first sheriff took office on this date.

Since the sheriff was the sole face of the law in the county, the Commissioners Court provided assistance in the form of groups of citizens known as patrollers. Normally, these adjunct bodies consisted of a captain and six privates who were appointed for one three-month term. Therefore the sheriff and the constable were normally the sole forms of law enforcement in the county. The sheriff was responsible enforcing the laws, and normally protecting the city (namely San Marcos), and maintaining the jail. The constable was responsible for rounding up fugitives and bringing them before the courts. As the county grew, the sheriff was allotted full time paid assistants, or deputies. From the 1890s until the 1960s, there were normally two or three full time deputies and one or two part-time deputies.

The duties of the deputies were to enforce the laws, maintain the peace, and maintain the jail. The sheriff and his family normally lived in an attached apartment to the jail. On occasions, when the sheriff’s family was too large for the apartment or grew too large, a deputy would move into the apartment to maintain watch of the inmates. The sheriff and his deputies maintained law and order throughout the county and in its cities, as San Marcos, Kyle, and Buda did not establish full time law enforcement agencies until after the 1950s.

John Coffee “Jack” Hays (January 28, 1817 – April 21, 1883). John Coffee (Jack) Hays, Texas Ranger extraordinary and Mexican War officer, son of Harmon and Elizabeth (Cage) Hays, was born at Little Cedar Lick, Wilson County, Tennessee, on January 28, 1817. His father, of Scots-Irish descent, fought with Andrew Jackson and Sam Houston in the War of 1812. Hays became the prototypical Texas Ranger officer, and he and his cohorts—John S. (Rip) Ford, Ben McCulloch, and Samuel H. Walker established the ranger tradition. Hays joined the Texas Rangers in the formative years of their role as citizen soldiers. His rangers gained a reputation as mounted troops with revolvers and individually styled uniforms, who marched and fought with a noticeable lack of military discipline. This rough-and-ready image of an irregular force left its imprint on the chronicles of ranger history.

In the thirteen years that he lived in Texas, Hays mixed a military career with surveying. At an early age he left home, surveyed lands in Mississippi, attended Davidson Academy at Nashville, and decided to cast his lot with the rebels in the Texas Revolution. In 1836 he traveled to New Orleans and entered Texas at Nacogdoches in time to join the troops under Thomas J. Rusk and bury the remains of victims of the Goliad Massacre. Houston advised Hays to join a company of rangers under Erastus (Deaf) Smith for service from San Antonio to the Rio Grande, under the orders of Col. Henry W. Karnes. In this role Hays took part in an engagement with Mexican cavalry near Laredo, assisted in the capture of Juan Sánchez, and rose to the rank of sergeant. After appointment as deputy surveyor of the Bexar District, Hays combined soldiering and surveying for several years. The more he learned about Indian methods of warfare, the better he protected surveying parties against Indian attacks.

In the three-way struggle of Anglo colonists, Hispanic settlers, and Indians, Hays proved to be an able leader and fearless fighter (called “Devil Yack”), who gained the respect of the rank and file of the Texas Rangers. Yet his stature-five feet nine inches-his fair complexion, and his mild manners did not match the looks and actions of the legendary ranger in later popular culture. From 1840 through 1846 Hays, at first a captain, then a major, and his ranger companies, sometimes with Mexican volunteers and such Indian allies as Lipan chief Flacco, engaged the Comanches and Mexican troops in small skirmishes and major battles. Important military actions took place at Plum Creek, Cañón de Ugalde, Salado (against Mexican soldiers under Adrián Woll), and Walker’s Creek. In these battles Hays and his rangers were usually outnumbered, and their effective use of revolvers revolutionized warfare against Texas Indians.

The Texas Rangers gained a national reputation in the Mexican War. Into Mexico rode Hays’s rangers. Out of Mexico came a mounted irregular body of rangers celebrated in song and story throughout the United States. This transformation in fact and fiction started with the formation of the First Regiment, Texas Mounted Riflemen, under Colonel Hays. Serving with the army of Gen. Zachary Taylor, the rangers marched, scouted, and took part in the attack on Monterrey in 1846. The next year Hays formed another regiment that participated in keeping communication and supply lines open between Veracruz and Mexico City for the troops under the command of Gen. Winfield Scott. In doing so, Hays’s rangers fought Mexican guerrillas near Veracruz and at such places as Teotihuacán and Sequalteplán. Controversy between the rangers and the Mexican people still lingers, for they robbed and killed each other off the battlefields.

In the years that followed the Mexican War, Hays pioneered trails through the Southwest to California and became a prominent citizen of that state. In 1848 he tried unsuccessfully to find a route between San Antonio and El Paso, and the following year he received an appointment from the federal government as Indian agent for the Gila River country. In addition, he was elected sheriff of San Francisco County in 1850, appointed United States surveyor general for California in 1853, became one of the founders of the city of Oakland, and ran successful enterprises in real estate and ranching. Though he was neutral during the Civil War, he was prominent in Democratic politics in California he was a delegate to the Democratic national convention in 1876. He married Susan Calvert in 1847, and they had three daughters and three sons. Hays died on April 21, 1883, and is buried in California. Hays County, Texas, is named in his honor.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Roger N. Conger et al., Rangers of Texas (Waco: Texian Press, 1969). James K. Greer, Colonel Jack Hayes: Texas Frontier Leader and California Builder (New York: Dutton, 1952 rev. ed., Waco: Morrison, 1974). Walter Prescott Webb, The Texas Rangers (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1935 rpt., Austin: University of Texas Press, 1982). Frederick Wilkins, The Highly Irregular Irregulars: Texas Rangers in the Mexican War (Austin: Eakin Press, 1990).

Travel industry pays tribute after death of John Hays

The founder of Hays Travel, the family-owned business that rescued thousands of jobs at Thomas Cook, has died.

John Hays, who started the travel firm in 1980, collapsed on Friday while working at its head office in Sunderland. The 71-year-old was married to the co-owner, Irene Hays.

The pair were praised in October 2019 when they purchased all 555 of Thomas Cook’s high street shops after the tour firm failed, with a pledge to rescue 2,500 jobs.

Hays Travel said in a statement: “It is with the deepest sadness and regret that we have to announce that John Hays, the founder and managing director of Hays Travel, died today while doing the job he loved. John, who with his wife and co-owner, Irene Hays, bought the Thomas Cook retail estate a year ago, was at work in the company’s Sunderland head office when he collapsed.

“John built Hays Travel into the UK’s largest independent travel agent providing jobs and careers for thousands of young people over 40 years. Throughout this past difficult year he did everything in his power to save jobs and protect the travel industry.”

More than 7,000 people are employed by the firm, which had a turnover in excess of £1bn in 2018. Hays was a former vice-chairman of Sunderland football club and was awarded the freedom of the city in 2016.

In an interview with the Guardian in April, he said the timing of the Thomas Cook deal had not been perfect, as the coronavirus pandemic devastated the travel industry. “Yes, it’s unfortunate,” he said. “Two months ago things were going fantastically but it’s not anybody’s fault and in these circumstances, all you can do is make the best of it. We’ll do what we can to protect our staff, protect the business and protect our customers. We’ve just got a positive attitude on life.”

Sunderland AFC said: “John was a champion of the north-east and the city of Sunderland. Our thoughts are with his wife, Irene, his family and his friends at this time.”

Mark Tanzer, the chief executive of travel trade organisation Abta, said: “We were shocked and saddened to hear this afternoon’s news that John Hays has passed away. John was a major figure in the travel industry over many years, and created one of the industry’s most successful companies.”

Derek Jones, the chief executive of the travel company Kuoni, said: “John was an inspiration and a true legend of the industry, but more importantly he was a great friend.”

John Hays (1837-1921)

John Hays was born in Carlisle, Pennsylvania on February 2, 1837 the youngest of two sons and a daughter of John and Eleanor Blaine Hays. On both sides of his family, the young John Hays was descended from old and highly respected central Pennsylvania stock. He was educated in the common schools of Carlisle and at the Plainfield Academy and entered Dickinson College in 1852. After a time away from his studies, he re-entered the College in 1854 and joined the class of 1857. He was a member of Phi Kappa Sigma and was elected to the Belle Lettres Society. Following graduation with his class, he entered law studies in Carlisle with Robert Henderson.

He was called to the Cumberland County bar in August 1859 and entered practice locally. In August 1862, he was commissioned a second lieutenant and then first lieutenant in the newly raised Company A of the 130th Regiment of Pennsylvania Volunteers. The 130th was one of the undrilled and untrained new regiments thrown into the action that culminated in the battle of Antietam. The unit later fought with heavy losses in the classes at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville where Hays, now adjutant of the regiment, was wounded in the right shoulder by a musket ball. He also served as adjutant to General William Hays for a time at brigade headquarters of the 2nd Brigade of the Third Division. He mustered out with his regiment on May 21, 1863 and returned to Carlisle, entering Henderson's law firm.

He resumed a long and prestigious local career, serving as president of the Carlisle Deposit Bank, as co-founder and chairman of the Carlisle Manufacturing Company, and a director of the Carlisle Gas and Water Company. He was active in civic and church affairs, as well. A Presbyterian, he was one of the original trustees of the Metzger Institute for Women in Carlisle that his uncle founded. He was also an active Republican and was a delegate to the national convention in 1880 and a presidential elector in the elections of 1904 and 1916. He spoke of his war experiences in later life, publishing his remarks on his old regiment's achievements, and was a local member of the Grand Army of the Republic.

He had married on August 8, 1865, Jane Van Ness Smead, sister of John Radcliffe Smead, and the couple had two sons and two daughters, including Raphael Smead Hays of Dickinson's class of 1894. John Hays died in Carlisle on November 30, 1921. He was eighty-four years old.

John Hays - History

Hay’s admiration for the President was almost boundless. He wrote to John Nicolay in September 1863: “The old man sits here and wields like a backwoods Jupiter the bolts of war and the machinery of government with a hand especially steady & equally firm.” 2 Because he dined frequently in neighboring hotels with other public figures and socialized in their homes, Hay was in a position to act as an important source of information for the President. He was also a source of humor. According to biographer Tyler Dennett, Hay was “the court jester. [John Forney] once congratulated him on the attitude he was taking toward his work, and remarked that he had ‘laughed through his term.'” 3

Once an Illinois correspondent for the Missouri Democrat partly owned by Frank Blair, Hay’s literarytalents were evident in this diary description of September 29, 1863: “Today came to the Executive Mansion an assembly of cold-water men & cold water women to make a temperance speech at the President & receive a response. They filed into the East Room looking blue & thin in the keen autumnal air Cooper, my coachman, who was about half tight, gazing at them with an air of complacent contempt and mild wonder. Three blue-skinned damsels personated Love, Purity, & Fidelity in Red White & Blue gowns. A few Invalid soldiers stumped along in the dismal procession. They made a long speech at the President in which they called Intemperance the cause of our defeats. He could not see it, as the rebels drink more & worse whiskey than we do. The filed off drearily to a collation of cold water & green apples, & then home to mulligrubs.” 4

Other observers were less impressed by the arrogance and self-importance of young aide. Hay was smart and knew it. He was attractive to young women and knew it. He was witty and knew it. Colleague William O. Stoddard recalled an incident interrupted his work to tell a joke. Nicolay heard the laughter and came into the room. The President heard the laughter and joined them: “‘Now John, just tell that thing again’ His feet had made no sound in coming from his room, or our own racket had drowned any footfall, but here was the President, and he sank into Andrew Jackson’s chair, facing the table, with Nicolay seated by him and Hay still standing by the mantel. The story was as fresh and was even better told that third time up to its first explosive place. Down came the President’s foot from across his knee with a heavy stamp on the floor, and out through the hall went the uproarious peal of laughter.” 5

The President and Hay even invaded each other’s bedrooms late at night to exchange news and stories. On one occasion, Hay reported: “I went to the bedside of the Chief couché. I told him the yarn he quietly grinned.” Journalist Noah Brooks, a friend of the Lincoln family, wrote: “Perhaps in all American public life nothing is more charming than the story of the relations which existed between these two men, the one in the bloom of youth, the other hastening toward his tragic end. Lincoln treated Hay with the affection of a father, only with more than a father’s freedom. If he waked at night he roused Hay, and they read together in summer they rode in the afternoons, and dined in the evenings at the Soldiers’ Home. In public matters the older man reposed in the younger unlimited confidence.” 6

Historian Michael Burlingame wrote that “Hay’s humor, intelligence, love of word play, fondness for literature, and devotion to his boss made him a source of comfort to the beleaguered president in the loneliness of the White House.” 7 Hay’s good humor stood him in good stead, but he often clashed with Mrs. Lincoln at the White House—since he and John Nicolay shared responsibility for the White House expense account. Early in the war, he also oversaw White House security. The conflict with the woman he called the “hellcat” hastened his appointment to be a diplomat in Paris in 1865. He had soaked up literature and culture at Brown University he shared with his White House boss a love of poetry and an occasionally melancholy temperament. He also shared the President’s love of good writing and the theater.

Lincoln chronicler Daniel Mark Epstein wrote that “the secretaries rarely left Washington for rest without an assignment somewhere in the vicinity of their destination, such as Hay’s detour to St. Louis when he went to visit his family in Warsaw, 10 miles away.” 8 When Hay was sent to Florida by President Lincoln in 1864, it was rumored that Hay was to become the state’s first reconstruction congressman reconstruction failed however as did all subsequent efforts to get Hay to run for political office. After the Civil War Hay served as a distinguished poet, novelist, journalist, businessman and diplomat, including service as Ambassador to Great Britain (1897-98) and Secretary of State (1898-1905) under Presidents William McKinley and Theodore Roosevelt. Hay managed the Open Door Policy toward China, negotiated the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty and helped arrange for construction of Panama Canal.

John Hays Hammond, Jr.

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John Hays Hammond, Jr., (born April 13, 1888, San Francisco—died Feb. 12, 1965, New York City), U.S. inventor whose development of radio remote control served as the basis for modern missile guidance systems.

Son of the noted U.S. mining engineer John Hays Hammond, he established the Hammond Radio Research Laboratory in 1911. By the beginning of World War I, he had not only developed radio remote control but also incorporated it with a gyroscope to send an experimental yacht on a 120-mile (190-kilometre) round trip between Gloucester, Mass., and Boston. Hammond then developed techniques for preventing enemy jamming of remote control and invented a radio-controlled torpedo for coastal defense.

Hammond conducted some of the earliest experiments in frequency modulation (FM) broadcasting and invented single-dial radio tuning. In addition he devised an amplifier that was used on long-distance telephone lines.

During World War II he developed a variable-pitch ship propeller that increased engine efficiency. His later developments include a method of intelligence transmission called “Telespot.” He was president of the Hammond Research Corporation, a consulting firm, and often served as research consultant to large corporations.

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